Thursday, May 21, 2020

Tracing the History and Genealogy of Your Home

Have you ever wondered about the history of your house, apartment, church or other building? When was it built? Why was it built? Who owned it? What happened to the people who lived and/or died there? Or, a favorite question as a child, does it have any secret tunnels or cubbyholes? Whether youre looking for documentation for historic status or are just plain inquisitive, tracing a propertys history and learning about the people who have lived there can be a fascinating and fulfilling project. When conducting research on buildings there are usually two types of information that people search for: Architectural facts, such as date of construction, the name of architect or builder, construction materials, and physical changes over time.Historical facts, such as information on the original owner and other residents through time, or interesting events associated with the building or area. A house history may consist of either type of research, or be a combination of both. Get to Know Your Home Begin your search by looking closely at the building for clues about its age. Look at the type of construction, the materials used in construction, the shape of the roofline, the placement of the windows, etc. These types of features may prove useful in identifying the architectural style of the building, which helps in establishing the general construction date. Walk around the property looking for obvious alterations or additions to the building as well as roadways, paths, trees, fences, and other features. It is also important to look at nearby buildings to see whether they contain similar features which will also help to date your property. Talk to relatives, friends, neighbors, even former employees - anyone who might know something about the house. Ask them not only for information about the building, but also about former owners, the land upon which the house was built, what existed at that location prior to construction of the house, and the history of the town or community. Check family letters, scrapbooks, diaries, and photo albums for possible clues. Its even possible (though not likely) that you may find an original deed or even a blueprint for the property. A thorough search of the property may also yield clues between walls, floorboards, and other forgotten areas. Old newspapers were often used as insulation between walls, while journals, clothing, and other items have been found in rooms, closets, or fireplaces that for one reason or another were sealed over. Were not recommending that you knock holes in the walls unless you are planning a restoration, but you should be aware of the many secrets which an older home or building can contain. Chain of Title Search A deed is a legal document used to transfer ownership of land and property. Examining all of the deeds concerning your home or other property is a big step toward learning more about its history. In addition to providing the names of property owners, deeds  may provide information on construction dates, changes in value and use, and even plot maps. Begin with the deed for the current owners of the property and work your way back from one deed to the next, with each deed providing details on who conveyed the property to whom. This list of property owners in succession is known as the chain of title. Though often a tedious process, a title search  is the best method for establishing a chain of ownership for a property. Begin your search for deeds by learning where they were recorded and stored for the time and place in which you are interested. Some jurisdictions are even beginning to place this information online - allowing you to search for current property information by address or owner.  Next, visit the registry of deeds (or location where deeds are recorded for your area) and use the grantee index to search for the present owner in an index of buyers. The index will provide you with a book and page where a copy of the actual deed is located. A number of county deed offices across the U.S. even provide online access to  copies of current, and sometimes historical, deeds. The free genealogy website  FamilySearch also has many historical deed records online in digital format. Digging Into Address Based Records One piece of information that you will almost always have for your home or building is the address. Therefore, once youve learned a bit about the property and looked for local clues, the next logical step is to search for documents that are based on a buildings address and location. Such documents, including property records, utility records, maps, photographs, architectural plans and more, maybe housed in the local library, historical society, local government offices, or even in private collections. Check with your local genealogy library or genealogical society for help finding the location of the following records in your specific locality. Building Permits:  Learn where building permits are kept on file for your buildings neighborhood - these may be held by local building departments, city planning departments, or even county or parish offices. Building permits for older buildings and residences may be preserved at libraries, historical societies or archives. Usually filed by street address, building permits can be especially useful when tracing a house history, often listing the original owner, architect, builder, construction cost, dimensions, materials, and date of construction. Alteration permits provide clues to the buildings physical evolution over time. On rare occasions, a building permit may also lead you to a copy of the original blueprints for your building.Utility Records:  If other means fail and the building isnt too old or rural, the date when utilities were first connected may provide a good indication of when a building was first occupied (i.e. a general construction date). The water company is oft en the best place to start as these records generally pre-date electrical, gas and sewer systems. Just remember that your home could have been built before these systems existed and, in such cases, the date of connection will not indicate the construction date.Insurance Records:  Historical insurance records, most notably fire insurance claim forms, contain information about the nature of an insured building, its contents, value and, possibly, even floor plans. For an exhaustive search, contact all insurance companies who have been active in your area for a long length of time and ask them to check their records for any policies sold for that address.  Fire insurance maps  created by Sanborn and other companies document the size and shape of buildings, locations of doors and windows, and construction materials, as well as street names and property boundaries, for both big cities and small towns. Researching the Owners Once youve explored the historical records of your home, one of the best ways to expand on the history of your home or other building is to trace its owners. A variety of standard sources exist which should help you learn who lived in the house before you, and from there it is just a matter of using a bit of genealogy research to fill in the gaps. You should have already learned the names of some of the previous occupants and, possibly, even the original owners from the chain of title search covered in part one of this article. Most archives and libraries also have pamphlets or articles available which will help you with the specifics of searching for the previous occupants of your home and learning more about their life. Some of the basic sources for tracing the owners of your home include: Phone Books City Directories:  Begin your search by letting your fingers do the walking. One of the best sources for information about the people who lived in your house are old phone books and, if you live in an urban area,  city directories. They can provide you with a timeline of former occupants, and possibly provide you with extra details such as occupations. As you search, it is important to keep in mind that your home may have had a different street number, and your street may have even had a different name. City and phone directories, in combination with  old maps, are usually the best source for these old street names and numbers. You can usually locate old phone books and city directories at local libraries and historical societies.Census Records:  Census records, depending upon the location and time period, may tell you who lived in your home or building, where they came from, how many children they had, the value of the property, and more. Census records can be e specially useful in narrowing down birth, death, and even marriage dates which, in turn, can lead to more records about the homeowners. Census records are not currently accessible beyond the early 20th century in most countries (e.g. 1911 in Great Britain, 1921 in Canada, 1940 in the U.S.) due to privacy concerns, but available records can usually be found at libraries and archives, and online for a number of countries including the  United States,  Canada, and  Great Britain.Church and Parish Records:  Local church and  parish records  can sometimes be a good source for death dates and other information about former occupants of your home. This is a more likely avenue of research in small towns where there arent a lot of churches, however.Newspapers and Obituaries:  If you are able to narrow down  a death date, then  obituaries  can provide you with a wealth of details about the former occupants of your home.  Newspapers  can also be good sources for informa tion on births, marriages, and  town histories, especially if youre lucky enough to find one which has been indexed or digitized. You may even find an article on your home if the owner was prominent in some way. Check with the local library or historical society to learn which newspaper was in operation at the time the former owners lived in the home, and where the archives are located. The U.S. Newspaper Directory at  Chronicling America  is an excellent source for information on what U.S. newspapers were being published in a particular area at a particular time, as well as the institutions which hold copies. A growing number of  historical newspapers can also be found online.Birth, Marriage and Death Records:  Ã‚  If you are able to narrow down a date of birth, marriage or death, then you should definitely investigate vital records. Birth, marriage, and death records are available from a variety of locations, depending upon the location and time period. Information is re adily available on the Internet which can point you to these records and provide you with the years they are available. The history of the homeowners is a big part of the history of a house. If youre lucky enough to track former owners all the way down to living descendants, then you may want to consider contacting them to learn more. People who have lived in the home can tell you things about it that you will never find in public records. They may also be in possession of old photos of the home or building. Approach them with care and courtesy, and they may be your best resource yet!

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Human Immunodeficiency Virus A Global Health Issue

Human immunodeficiency virus continues to be a global health issue, which leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome, a very serious and possibly fatal sexually transmitted infection. AIDS has existed within the United States since the mid to late 70’s, but is said to have originated as far back as the 1800s. Education is important in identifying and preventing AIDS. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome is caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV attacks the body’s immune system, rendering the immune system unable to fight off certain infections and diseases. The virus is spread through sexual secretions (i.e. semen, pre-seminal fluid, rectal fluid, vaginal fluid) and blood. Less commonly, HIV can be given to an infant from their mother during pregnancy or childbirth, through oral sex, by receiving blood transfusions, blood products, organs, or tissue transplants, through contact between broken skin, wounds, or membrane. 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Main Types of New Year’s Resolutions Free Essays

New Year’s Resolutions Apart from the endless cups of tea with Christmas sweets, the great fun and the inmense blissfulness that we experience by the end of the year and the beginning of a new one, the New Year is also the traditional time to make resolutions, which are plans to improve oneself. Resolutions are basically promises to oneself, and like promises, you either keep them or break them. That is to say, you are either successful in keeping your plans, or you are not and you go back to your old habits. We will write a custom essay sample on Main Types of New Year’s Resolutions or any similar topic only for you Order Now The vast majority of people think that they need a new lifestyle, a change, or a recommitment as an individual. The aim of most resolutions is to turn over a new leaf. That is, to make yourself better by changing your routines and habits. It is like making a fresh, new start in your life. Generally there are two main types of resolutions: give up or take up. A lot of people say that their New Year’s Resolutions are to give up a bad habit or to take up a new hobby. Personally, I think that what I would just like to do is carry on working hard; carry on being happy and healthy. I plan to keep on studying, keep on exercising ( I wish I could do it quite often in 2012), keep on eating well and keep on sleeping well, keep on getting on well with my family and friends. And that’s about it, there is nothing else. Nothing too big, nothing too heavy, because experience tells me that if you try to ask yourself to do too much stuff, it will eventually not happen. How to cite Main Types of New Year’s Resolutions, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

The ballad of worthy wealth Essay Example

The ballad of worthy wealth Essay The Middle Paragraphs In this poem Andrew Lang explains the cold truth about money and what it has meant for people in the sasss . He uses repetition to explain his ideas. Andrew Lang gathers in his mind that money can be good or evil. It depends on the use of the money not the context. In this poem most of the people will only do things for money and this is what Lang is really trying to emphasize about the main idea. The Ballad of Worthy Wealth, is saying that no matter what the subject or ideal perception is hat money can bring deception and total corruption in a society. Lang uses rhetorical language in this poem. He uses different words to show the mood/tone of the story such as take, make, fro, can stow, to throw, ebb and flow, and without a blow. This is almost as if its more of an informational tone. Lang describes that youth, health and paradise were the main targets as far as the use of and manipulation of people and money. The setting of Ballad of Worthy Wealth, takes place in 19th century. This was the time of life of Andrew Lang. Take in inconsideration during this time Britain led the Industrial revolution which brought money to the country so not only was royalty getting money but the people had Jobs that paid very well. During this time people were on the move to getting new Jobs. They would accept anything that paid them. So It didnt matter what was being said or done as long as they were getting paid. We will write a custom essay sample on The ballad of worthy wealth specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The ballad of worthy wealth specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The ballad of worthy wealth specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The audience that Lang Is trying to Influence are business owners, bakers, locals and even Just communities of different people on a large scale. The people are using money for everything no matter what It is. These people are greedy and they want to make It rain when Its sunny outside they are spending more money that Is not needed. Lang Is against this and Is trying to explain what Is happening right In front of their own eyes, The form that the Poem Is written In Is haiku there Is three stanzas each are contacting eight lines that rhyme. Its more of an haiku because of this. Sonnets are a poem of fourteen lines using any off number of formal rhyme schemes, In English typically having ten syllables per line. Astatines are poems with SIX stanzas of six lines and a final triplet, al stanzas having the same SIX words at the line-ends In SIX different sequences that follow a fixed pattern, and with all six words appearing In the closing three-line envoy. The only only one that Is closest Is haiku. Andrew Lands purpose of the poem was a message to the world that we as human need to come together and spend less money. To strive towards new beginnings The ballad of worthy wealth By Aeronautic consideration during this time Britain led the industrial revolution which brought They would accept anything that paid them. So it didnt matter what was being said or done as long as they were getting paid. The audience that Lang is trying to influence are business owners, bakers, locals and even Just communities of different people on a large scale. The people are using money for everything no matter what it is. These people are greedy and they want to make it rain when its sunny outside they are spending more money that is not needed. Lang is against this and is trying to explain what is happening right in front of their own eyes, The form that the Poem s written in is haiku there is three stanzas each are containing eight lines that using any of a number of formal rhyme schemes, in English typically having ten syllables per line. Astatines are poems with six stanzas of six lines and a final triplet, all stanzas having the same six words at the line-ends in six different sequences that follow a fixed pattern, and with all six words appearing in the closing three-line envoy. The only only one that is closest is haiku. Andrew Lands purpose of the poem was a

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Understanding the Key Events of World War II

Understanding the Key Events of World War II World War II, which lasted from 1939 to 1945, was a war fought primarily between the Axis Powers (Nazi Germany, Italy, and Japan) and the Allies (France, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and the United States). Although World War II was started by Nazi Germany in their attempt to conquer Europe,it turned into  the largest and the bloodiest war in world history, responsible for the deaths of an estimated 40 to 70 million people, many of whom were civilians. World War II included the attempted genocide of the Jewish people during the Holocaust and the first use of an atomic weapon during a war. Dates: 1939 - 1945 Also Known As: WWII, Second World War Appeasement Following World War I After the devastation and destruction caused by World War I, the world was tired of war and was willing to do almost anything to prevent another from starting. Thus, when Nazi Germany annexed Austria (called the Anschluss) in March 1938, the world did not react. When Nazi leader Adolf Hitler demanded the Sudeten area of Czechoslovakia in September 1938, the world powers handed it to him. Confident that these appeasements had averted a total war from occurring, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain stated, I believe it is peace in our time. Hitler, on the other hand, had different plans. Completely disregarding the Versailles Treaty, Hitler was ramping up for war. In preparation for an attack on Poland, Nazi Germany made a deal with the Soviet Union on August 23, 1939, called the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact. In exchange for land, the Soviet Union agreed to not attack Germany. Germany was ready for war. The Start of World War II At 4:45 a.m. on September 1, 1939, Germany attacked Poland. Hitler sent in 1,300 planes of his Luftwaffe (German air force) as well as more than 2,000 tanks and 1.5 million well-trained, ground troops. The Polish military, on the other hand, consisted mostly of foot soldiers with old weapons (even some using lances) and cavalry.   Needless to say, the odds were not in Poland’s favor. Great Britain and France, who had treaties with Poland, both declared war on Germany two days later, on September 3, 1939. However, these countries could not gather troops and equipment fast enough to help save Poland. After Germany had waged a successful attack on Poland from the west, the Soviets invaded Poland from the east on September 17, per the pact they had with Germany. On September 27, 1939, Poland surrendered. For the next six months, there was little actual fighting as the British and French built up their defenses along France’s Maginot Line and the Germans readied themselves for a major invasion. There was so little actual fighting that some journalists termed this â€Å"the Phoney War.† The Nazis Seem Unstoppable On April 9, 1940, the quiet interlude of the war ended as Germany invaded Denmark and Norway. Having met very little resistance, the Germans were soon able to launch Case Yellow (Fall Gelb), an offensive against France and the Low Countries. On May 10, 1940, Nazi Germany invaded Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands. The Germans were heading through Belgium to enter France, bypassing France’s defenses along the Maginot Line. The Allies were completely unprepared to defend France from a northern attack. The French and British armies, along with the rest of Europe, were quickly overpowered by Germany’s new, swift blitzkrieg (â€Å"lightning war†) tactics. Blitzkrieg was a fast, coordinated, highly-mobile attack that combined air power and well-armored ground troops along a narrow front in order to quickly breach an enemy’s line. (This tactic was meant to avoid the stalemate that caused trench warfare in WWI.) The Germans attacked with deadly force and precision, seeming unstoppable. In a bid to escape total slaughter, 338,000 British and other Allied troops were evacuated, starting on May 27, 1940, from the coast of France to Great Britain as part of Operation Dynamo (often called the Miracle of Dunkirk). On June 22, 1940, France officially surrendered. It had taken less than three months for the Germans to conquer Western Europe. With France defeated, Hitler turned his sights to Great Britain, intending to conquer it as well in Operation Sea Lion (Unternehmen Seelowe). Before a ground assault was to begin, Hitler ordered the bombing of Great Britain, beginning the Battle of Britain on July 10, 1940. The British, emboldened by Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s morale-building speeches and aided by radar, successfully countered the German air attacks. Hoping to destroy British morale, Germany began bombing not just military targets but also civilian ones as well, including populated cities. These attacks, which began in August 1940, often occurred at night and were known as â€Å"the Blitz.† The Blitz strengthened the British resolve. By the fall of 1940, Hitler canceled Operation Sea Lion but continued the Blitz well into 1941. The British had stopped the seemingly unstoppable German advance. But, without help, the British could not hold them off for long. Thus, the British asked U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt for help. Although the United States was unwilling to fully enter World War II, Roosevelt agreed to send Great Britain weapons, ammunition, artillery, and other much-needed supplies. The Germans also got help. On September 27, 1940, Germany, Italy, and Japan signed the Tripartite Pact, joining these three countries into the Axis Powers. Germany Invades the Soviet Union While the British prepared and waited for an invasion, Germany began to look east. Despite signing the Nazi-Soviet Pact with Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, Hitler had always planned to invade the Soviet Union as part of his plan to gain Lebensraum (â€Å"living room†) for the German people. Hitler’s decision to open a second front in World War II is often considered one of his worst. On June 22, 1941, the German army invaded the Soviet Union, in what was called Case Barbarossa (Fall Barbarossa). The Soviets were taken completely by surprise. The German army’s blitzkrieg tactics worked well in the Soviet Union, allowing the Germans to advance quickly. After his initial shock, Stalin rallied his people and ordered a â€Å"scorched earth† policy in which Soviet citizens burned their fields and killed their livestock as they fled from the invaders. The scorched-earth policy slowed the Germans for it forced them to rely solely on their supply lines. The Germans had underestimated the vastness of the land and the absoluteness of the Soviet winter. Cold and wet, the German soldiers could barely move and their tanks became stuck in mud and snow. The entire invasion stalled. The Holocaust Hitler sent more than just his army into the Soviet Union; he sent mobile killing squads called Einsatzgruppen. These squads were to search out and kill Jews and other â€Å"undesirables† en masse. This killing started out as large groups of Jews being shot and then dumped into pits, such as at Babi Yar. It soon evolved into mobile gas vans. However, these were determined to be too slow at killing, so the Nazis built death camps, created to kill thousands of people a day, such as at Auschwitz, Treblinka, and Sobibor. During World War II, the Nazis created an elaborate, secretive, systematic plan to eradicate Jews from Europe in what is now called the Holocaust. The Nazis also targeted Gypsies, homosexuals, Jehovah Witnesses, the disabled, and all Slavic peoples for slaughter. By the end of the war, the Nazis had killed 11 million people solely based on Nazi racial policies. The Attack on Pearl Harbor Germany was not the only country looking to expand. Japan, newly industrialized, was poised for conquest, hoping to take over vast areas in Southeast Asia. Worried that the United States might try to stop them, Japan decided to launch a surprise attack against the United States’ Pacific Fleet in the hopes of keeping the U.S. out of war in the Pacific. On December 7, 1941, Japanese airplanes wreaked havoc on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. In just two hours, 21 U.S. ships had either been sunk or badly damaged. Shocked and outraged at the unprovoked attack, the United States declared war on Japan the following day. Three days after that, the United States declared war on Germany. The Japanese, aware that the U.S. would probably retaliate for the bombing of Pearl Harbor, preemptively attacked the U.S. naval base in the Philippines on December 8, 1941, destroying many of the U.S. bombers stationed there. Following their air attack with a ground invasion, the battle ended with U.S. surrendering and the deadly Bataan Death March. Without the air strip in the Philippines, the U.S. needed to find a different way to retaliate; they decided upon a bombing raid right into the heart of Japan. On April 18, 1942, 16 B-25 bombers took off from a U.S. aircraft carrier, dropping bombs on Tokyo, Yokohama, and Nagoya. Although the damage inflicted was light, the Doolittle Raid, as it was called, caught the Japanese off guard. However, despite the Doolittle Raid’s limited success, the Japanese were dominating the Pacific War. The Pacific War Just like the Germans seemed impossible to stop in Europe, the Japanese won victory after victory in the early part of the Pacific War, successfully taking the Philippines, Wake Island, Guam, the Dutch East Indies, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Burma. However, things began to change at the Battle of Coral Sea (May 7-8, 1942), when there was a stalemate. Then there was the Battle of Midway (June 4-7, 1942), a major turning point in the Pacific War. According to Japanese war plans, the Battle of Midway was to be a secret attack on the U.S. air base on Midway, ending in a decisive victory for Japan. What Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto did not know was that the U.S. had successfully broken several Japanese codes, allowing them to decipher secret, coded Japanese messages. Learning ahead of time about the Japanese attack on Midway, the U.S. prepared an ambush. The Japanese lost the battle, losing four of their aircraft carriers and many of their well-trained pilots. No longer did Japan have naval superiority in the Pacific. A number of major battles followed, at Guadalcanal, Saipan, Guam, Leyte Gulf, and then the Philippines. The U.S. won all of these and continued to push the Japanese back to their homeland. Iwo Jima (February 19 to March 26, 1945) was a particularly bloody battle as the Japanese had created underground fortifications that were well camouflaged. The last Japanese-occupied island was Okinawa and Japanese Lieutenant General Mitsuru Ushijima was determined to kill as many Americans as possible before being defeated. The U.S. landed on Okinawa on April 1, 1945, but for five days, the Japanese did not attack. Once the U.S. forces spread out across the island, the Japanese attacked from their hidden, underground fortifications in the southern half of Okinawa. The U.S. fleet was also bombarded by over 1,500 kamikaze pilots, who caused major damage as they flew their planes directly into U.S. ships. After three months of bloody fighting, the U.S. captured Okinawa. Okinawa was the last battle of World War II. D-Day and the German Retreat In Eastern Europe, it was the Battle of Stalingrad (July 17, 1942 to February 2, 1943) that changed the tide of war. After the German defeat at Stalingrad, the Germans were on the defensive, being pushed back toward Germany by the Soviet army. With the Germans being pushed back in the east, it was time for the British and U.S. forces to attack from the west. In a plan that took a year to organize, the Allied forces launched a surprise, amphibious landing on the beaches of Normandy in northern France on June 6, 1944. The first day of the battle, known as D-Day, was extremely important. If the Allies could not break through the German defenses on the beaches this first day, the Germans would have time to bring in reinforcements, making the invasion at utter failure.   Despite many things going awry and an especially bloody fight on the beach codenamed Omaha, the Allies did break through that first day. With the beaches secured, the Allies then brought in two Mulberries, artificial harbors, which allowed them to unload both supplies and additional soldiers for a major offensive on Germany from the west. As the Germans were on the retreat, a number of top German officials wanted to kill Hitler and end the war. Ultimately, the July Plot failed when the bomb that exploded on July 20, 1944 only injured Hitler. Those involved in the assassination attempt were rounded up and killed. Although many in Germany were ready to end World War II, Hitler was not ready to admit defeat. In one, last offensive, the Germans tried to break the Allied line. Using blitzkrieg tactics, the Germans pushed through the Ardennes Forest in Belgium on December 16, 1944. The Allied forces were totally taken by surprise and desperately tried to keep the Germans from breaking through. In so doing, the Allied line began to have a bulge in it, hence the name Battle of the Bulge. Despite this being the bloodiest battle ever fought by American troops, the Allies ultimately won. The Allies wanted to end the war as soon as possible and so they strategically bombed any remaining factories or oil depots left within Germany. However, in February 1944, the Allies began a massive and deadly bombing attack on the German city of Dresden, nearly demolishing the once-beautiful city. The civilian casualty rate was extremely high and many have questioned the reasoning for the firebombing since the city was not a strategic target. By the spring of 1945, the Germans had been pushed back into their own borders on both the east and west. The Germans, who had been fighting for six years, were low on fuel, had barely any food left, and were severely low on ammunition. They were also very low on trained soldiers. Those that were left to defend Germany were the young, old, and wounded. On April 25, 1945, the Soviet army had Berlin, Germany’s capital, completely surrounded. Finally realizing that the end was near, Hitler committed suicide on April 30, 1945. The fighting in Europe officially ended at 11:01 p.m. on May 8, 1945, a day known as V-E Day (Victory in Europe). Ending the War With Japan Despite the victory in Europe, World War II was still not over for the Japanese were still fighting. The death toll in the Pacific was high, especially since Japanese culture forbade surrender. Knowing that the Japanese planned to fight to the death, the United States was extremely concerned about how many U.S. soldiers would die if they invaded Japan. President Harry Truman, who had become president when Roosevelt died on April 12, 1945 (less than a month before the end of WWII in Europe), had a fateful decision to make. Should the U.S. use its new, deadly weapon against Japan in the hopes that it would force Japan to surrender without an actual invasion? Truman decided to try to save U.S. lives. On August 6, 1945, the U.S. dropped an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima and then three days later, dropped another atomic bomb on Nagasaki. The devastation was shocking. Japan surrendered on August 16, 1945, known as V-J Day (Victory over Japan). After the War World War II left the world a different place. It had taken an estimated 40 to 70 million lives and destroyed much of Europe. It brought about the splitting of Germany into East and West and created two major superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. These two superpowers, who had tenuously worked together to fight back Nazi Germany, became pitted against each other in what became known as the Cold War. Hoping to prevent a total war from ever happening again, representatives from 50 countries met together in San Francisco and founded the United Nations, officially created on October 24, 1945.

Monday, March 2, 2020

6 Ways to Help Beat Student Stress - Proofread My Paper

6 Ways to Help Beat Student Stress - Proofread My Paper 6 Ways to Help Beat Student Stress The pressures of college life are many and varied, but the effects are undeniable: More students than ever are suffering from stress and stress-related mental health issues. Hopefully youre not facing anything quite this stressful.(Photo: Bernard Goldbach/flickr) As such, it’s vital that you know what to do if you’re feeling stressed. And these six tips are a good starting point. 1. Know the Signs of Stress The first step to beating stress is recognizing when you are stressed. After all, it can be easy to miss the signs when you’re busy with a dozen other things! Prominent symptoms of stress include: Irritability or feeling overwhelmed Difficulty concentrating Low self-esteem or constant worrying Headaches, tension and muscle pain Loss of appetite or difficultly sleeping Stress is experienced differently by everyone, so this list isn’t definitive. But if these symptoms do sound familiar, it’s important not to ignore them. 2. Know Your Stressors The best way to deal with anxiety is to cut it out at the source. Common stressors for college students include: Academic stress (i.e., worrying about grades and workload) Personal stress (i.e., anxiety about your personal and/or romantic life) Family stress (i.e., pressure from your family or adjusting to being away from home) Financial stress (i.e., making ends meet on a student budget) Uncertainty about the future (i.e., not knowing what you’ll do after college) The solution to these issues will depend on your situation, but knowing what makes you feel stressed will make it easier to make positive changes. 3. Talk It Out In many cases, simply talking to someone can be a great help. This could be friends, family, your professors or even a counselor (most colleges offer a counselling service for students). Discussing your problems is especially effective if you can talk to the people involved (e.g., talking about workload issues with professors). But even just chatting with a friend is better than keeping it all bottled up inside. 4. Eat Well and Exercise Your diet is important when you’re feeling stressed. Eat healthy food whenever possible, don’t skip meals, and cut out excessive caffeine (especially in the evenings). The suitcase is optional. Similarly, regular physical exercise has been shown to be important to stress management. 5. Rest and Recuperate Sometimes, stress is a result of burnout, especially when you’re juggling a lot of responsibilities. Getting plenty of sleep is therefore crucial. However, since anxiety can also cause insomnia, you should make sure your bedroom is set up to make sleeping easier (e.g., having a good mattress) and that you have a regular evening routine. 6. Relaxation Taking time off is also vital. Simply put, you’ll never be able to beat stress if you don’t give yourself the chance to relax occasionally. This could be as simple as hanging out with friends or binge-watching something on Netflix, as long as it takes your mind off work! For extra help, though, you might also want to try meditation and relaxation exercises. A little quiet time can go a long way.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Automobile Brake Disc and Pad Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Automobile Brake Disc and Pad - Essay Example However, in special cases such as in racing cars or for people with disability, hands may be used as a means of enhancing efficiency, according to Owen (2010). It is very interesting that many people still wonders how a small peddle, in the form of a car brake is able to stop a huge car in motion with just a slight press of the brake. Similarly, it is still a mystery to many people, how it happens, though people increasingly understand the working system of a car brake. Basically, when a driver presses the brakes with the help of the legs, a force is transmitted from the driver’s foot to the brakes via a fluid. However, since the car needs a much greater force than applied by the leg to stop, the car normally multiplies the force applied by the foot. The braking system then transmits the force to the car tires and consequently the tires transmit the force to the road where the friction law applies and the car stops (Erjavec, 2008). Car brakes are of two types, namely drum and disc brakes. Drum brakes is a type of breaking system that stops a car in motion by friction, when brake shoes are pressed against the drum. Drum brakes have many components that are important for its operation. These include drum, piston, wheel cylinder, return spring, brake shoe, stud, brake pads, wheel hub, and brake lining. The existence of these components makes it easy for drivers to stop vehicles easily by applying just a little pressure on the brake pedal (Gilles, 2005). Disc brakes, on the other hand, are a round, flat metallic pieces that spin together with the wheel. When brakes are applied against the wheel, a caliper squeezes the brake pads against the disc (rotor) thereby causing friction that makes the wheel to slow down and eventually stop. Disc brakes consist of different components such as brake pads, the caliper that has a piston and the rotor usually mounted to the hub. Research indicates that most modern cars are increasingly adopting the use of disc brakes fixe d in front of the wheels while others have disc brakes on all the four wheels (Erjavec, 2003). An example of a disc brake (brake rotor) commonly used on modern cars is the single-piston floating caliper. The most striking feature of this rotor is that it is both self-centering and self-adjusting. The caliper here is capable of sliding from side to side thereby making it move to the center every time the brakes are applied. In addition, since this type of disc lacks the spring to pull the pads away from the disc, the pads normally stay intact with the rotor. This is crucial since the pistons in the brakes have a larger diameter than those in the master cylinder. In case the pistons retract into their cylinders, the brake pedal might require several applications to be able to pump enough fluid into the brake cylinder so as to engage the brake pads (Gilles, 2005). The type of brake rotor one buys depends greatly on the type of vehicle that one drives, as well as the type of driving one does. For instance, carbon reinforced rotors were the most commonly used discs in racing cars such as in Formula One racing cars. This is based on its ability to get heated up to high temperatures needed for proper braking. However, this is no longer the case as it has been replaced by the carbon-fiber reinforced ceramic brake rotor, which is the most preferred for use currently in racing cars. This is attributed to its high performance on the road. For example, high performance cars such as the latest Porsche Carrera GT, Corvette ZR1, and Ferrari Enzo use ceramic